What most babies do by this age: Social: Copies others, especially adults and older children Begins to enjoy playing with other children Shows more and more independence Begins to show assertiveness at times saying “no” to adult requests Plays mainly beside other children, but is beginning to include other children, such as in chase games May have rapid mood shifts Communication: Points to things or pictures when they are named Knows names of familiar people and body parts Says sentences with 2 to 4 words Follows simple instructions Repeats words overheard Points to things in a book Problem-Solving: Finds things even when hidden under two or three covers Begins to sort shapes and colors Completes sentences and rhymes in familiar books Plays simple make-believe games Builds towers of 4 or more blocks Might use one hand more than the other Follows two-step instructions such as “Please pick up your shoes and put them in the closet.” Names items in a picture book such as a cat, bird, or dog Movement: Stands on tiptoe Kicks a ball Begins to run Climbs onto and down from furniture without help Walks up and down stairs holding on Throws ball overhand Makes or copies straight lines and circles WHAT FAMILIES CAN DO Be calm and comforting during and after your toddler’s temper tantrums. Be consistent with what your toddler can and cannot do. Use words to describe your toddler’s emotions – “You are happy when we visit the library.” Give your toddler lots of hugs and kisses and give praise for good behavior. Praise good behaviors rather than focusing on punishing bad behaviors. Arrange play dates with other children; have lots of toys to play with because toddlers have trouble sharing. Encourage your toddler to have empathy – to hug or pat another child who is sad. Give your toddler simple tasks to do to help around the house, such as sweeping and helping with dinner. Play with blocks and take turns building towers and knocking them down. Provide materials for art project using crayons, paint and play-dough. Help your toddler with simple puzzles with shapes, colors or animals; name the pieces as they are put in place. Talk to your toddler about the things you are doing and seeing together. Teach your toddler to identify and say body parts, animals and other common things. Use words to identify feelings. Encourage your toddler to say the word rather than pointing to something he/she wants. Tell stories, read and encourage pretend play. Sing songs and repeat rhymes together; take turns inserting goofy words such as “Row, Row, Row your —-.” Ask your toddler to carry small items for you once he/she walks well. Kick a ball back and forth, and once your toddler can do this, encourage him/her to run and kick it. Visit parks, playgrounds and large indoor play spaces where your toddler can run and climb on playground equipment.